Wisdom of Life

Project 3

Perception about Climate Change after Floods

Timeframe :

02 Months

Donors / Sponsors:

Outsourced by LEADPakistan

Geographical Coverage :

District Muzaffargarh (Punjab) and District Dadu (Sindh)

Objectives of the Project:

  •       Identification of the most affected districts in the context of climate change; one each inPunjaband Sindh
  •       Determine perceptions of the relevant stakeholders about climate change
  •       Assessment of the capacity gaps among the stakeholders
  •       Review of local adaptation and mitigation approaches to develop recommendations for future

Methodology :

Three categories of stakeholders such as local communities, government functionaries and non-governmental organizations were included in the survey. Keeping in view gender aspects, three surveyors were appointed in each of the district for collection of the data. Based on the ongoing and future scenario of climate change causing flash floods, interviews based upon pre-designed questionnaires were conducted. Following were the key components of research methodology:

  •       Interviews with about 10 focused groups in each of the district.
  •       Completion of 100 questionnaires covering relevant aspects of climate change
  •       Field visits to the hazard sites and interactive dialogues with the stakeholders
  •       Review of secondary data with analysis of the flood maps
  •       Monitoring during field exercise

Almost all categories of stakeholders and gender factors were taken into account. The analysis of the filled questionnaires undertaken is based on statistical methodology. A summarized table form is attached at Annexure.

Stakeholders Analysis :

Stakeholders’ identification was carried out on the basis of their relevance with the target areas, close association with the climate induced issues, mobilization of the partners, role in public policy and future planning. Keeping in view these aspects, three tiers of stakeholders were interacted to find out their perceptions about climate change, capacity gaps and the level of understanding for development of adaptation and mitigation strategies amidst of the disasters being caused by the flash floods. Focused group meetings, interviews and interactive dialogues were held with the following three categories of the stakeholders as the main respondents:

  •       Local communities including Community based Organizations
  •       Government functionaries including local and national organizations
  •       Partners of the National Alliance for Climate Action (NACA) including NGOs

Based on perceptions of majority of the local communities, government functionaries and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), findings of the study supported that if appropriate measures were not adopted in coming years, atmospheric temperature would continue to increase coupled with incidence of the floods. Deforestation would reach to an alarming stage. Migration of communities would increase and crop yields would continue to decrease due to irregular pattern of weather. The views expressed and shared by the stakeholders were exactly the same as of 4th Assessment Report of Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). However, majority of the local communities were oblivious to the cause and effect of climate change phenomenon but they strongly believed that something strange has been taking place with the weather patterns resulting primarily into intense draughts and then flashfloods.

Flood affected Districts in Sindh andPunjabin the context of climate change

Province

Districts Affected Status River Flow (Cusecs)July – Sep, 2010 Ecological / Topographical Factors Natural Resources Applicable Mitigation Measures for Future
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sindh

Dadu Severe MancharLake350 to 520 km2 Crop plains Embankments
Ghotki “   “   “ Cotton, wheat
Jacobabad “   “   “ Crop plains Embankments
Jamshoro “   “   “
Kashmore “   “   “
Larkana “   “   “ Rice crops
Q. Shahdadkot “   “   “ Wheat, cotton
Shikarpur “   “   “ Wheat coton
Thatta “   “   “ KinjharLake9842 HaSea intrusions Fisheries
Hyderabad Moderate
Khairpur “   “   “ Settlements in catchment Largest Date-Palms
Matiari “   “   “ Sugarcane and cotton
Naushero Feroz “   “   “
Benazirabad “   “   “ Sugarcane and cotton
Sukkur “   “   “ 1,100,000 Tori Bund Strengthening the embankments
Tando Allah Yar “   “   “ Sugarcane, cotton, banana, mango
Tando M. Khan “   “   “ Sugarcane, cotton, banana. mango
   

 

 

Punjab

Bhakkar Severe
D.G Khan “   “   “ Cotton, wheat
Layya “   “   “
Mianwali “   “   “
Muzaffargarh “   “   “ 1,150,000 (Taunsa) Junction of River SystemHead Panjnand Socio-economically backward Possible Diversion to Cholistan
Rahim Yar Khan “   “   “ Cotton, wheat
Rajan Pur “   “   “ Hill TorrentsJunction of River System Socio-economically backward
Jhang Moderate Cotton wheat
Khushab “   “   “
Multan “   “   “ Cotton, wheat
Sargodha “   “   “

Conclusion :

Pakistanis located at an important geographical position with a unique topology on the world map. This piece of landmass is not an exception of the irregular changing patterns of weather being observed and felt by humans across the globe. Whether one talk about local communities, urban population, climatologists or development practitioners, hardly any one disagrees with the opinion that climate is changing both at the global as well as local levels across all the continents.

 

Looking at the recent trends of floods, their incidence has continued to increase from mid level of floods to high and flashfloods with more intense impacts on infrastructure, natural resource, humans, agriculture, livestock, fisheries, etc. During the flashfloods of 2010, 09 districts were seriously affected inPunjaband 11 in Sindh. Out of these, the seriously affected Districts of Muzaffargarh inPunjaband Dadu in Sindh are very important in the climate change perspectives.

 

District Muzaffargarh is sandwiched between the riverChenaband Sindh. Particularly riverChenabis causing land erosion at the rate of about 2-3 km per year. As a result, agriculture land of the district is getting fast degraded due to water erosion of the river. From western side, River Indus is causing flashfloods from Taunsa barrage and Ghazi Ghat negatively impact economy of the area that is already very poor. In addition to this all the five major rivers of country merge in the district at the point known as Sarki in village Seetpur of Thesil Ali. The well known Panjnand Headworks built in 1931 is also located in this area at a distance of about 35 km from Sarki towards higher elevation. Therefore, this area has great significance for building artificial barrages and dams both to check the floods and means of irrigation water to irrigate the lands during periods of draught.

 

District Dadu being one of the seriously flood affected district lies in the viscinity of Sukkur Barrage and between River Indus from the eastern side and Kirthar and Gorkha mountain ranges from the western side carrying hill torrents from Balochistan, Iran and Iraq. In addition to this, it hosts the great Manchar lake spread in an area of 350 to 520 Km2 depending upon availability of hill torrents and water from Indus River through  MNVD, RBOD and small tributaries of Indus. These drains and tributaries act as balancing mechanism of water holding in theMancharLake. The increasing pollution in theMancharLake has reached to the catastrophic level. As a result the fish catch dropped to about 100 tons compared to 3,000 tons in 1950 and 14 species out of 200 have become extinct due to toxicity in the lake. More than 70% of fisher have already migrated to other areas in search of their livelihoods. On the other hand, if conservation of Manchar is threatened, thousands of acres of agriculture land being currently irrigated by the lake would directly be affected. Therefore, this is of tremendous importance that adaptation and mitigation strategies may be developed for conservation of the lake and to protect the area from flash floods.

 

Communities have the lowest perception about meaningful cause & effect of the climate changes followed by government functionaries and non-governmental organizations in descending order. There are serious capacity gaps as communities had hardly any opportunities for building their capacity to face the disasters occurring due to climate change. However, government functionaries, NGOs and CBOs have been comparatively better in this context. Regarding development of local adaptation and mitigation measures to address the negative impacts of floods, all the above mentioned three tiers of stakeholders not only knew about the approaches and methods but also several cases existed on the ground as proof for successful implementation of those methods. The major constraints have been financial resource unavailability, lack of organized training, weak local governance structure, unsatisfactory political will and low level of technical skills as part of their capacity.

 

Recommendations for District Muzaffargarh :

Sr. #

Stakeholders

Recommendations

1

Community

  • Protective walls/concrete bands may be repaired from Head Taunsa Barrage to Layyah (20-30 km) in Tehsil Kot Addu with stones mass.
  • Concrete band should be made from Nabi Pur to Sarki (10-12 km.) in Tehsil Ali Pur
  • Communities may be displaced to safe areas which are sitting near the river embankments
  • NGOs should work actively for rehabilitation purposes
  • Flood information centers should be established near the critical river points

 

2

Government

  • Protective walls / bands may be constructed on both the rivers Chenaband Sindh for protection of the district.
  • Appropriate measures to be taken for water logging and salinity
  • The migration or shifting points for local communities may be identified and established.
  • Encroachment may be eliminated inside the river areas
  • Advance communication and warning system should be installed so that authentic information may be provided
  • Cholistan land should be inundated by diverting the direction of flood water by digging out small water channls

 

3

 

NACA/NGOs

  • The geographical and hydrological importance of Sarki where all the main rivers merge into River Sindh may be highlighted for development of future head works in an effort to manage the flood water.
  • At the most critical points of the band, Sipper wall / band may be constructed
  • There is urgent need to build small dams as protective measures. Rather the need for construction of Kalabagh dam has risen among the communities.
  • Trees plantation may be promoted along the river banks on the basis of war footing
  • Flood information centers may be organized with enhanced capacity and empowerment for provision of timely and authentic information as part of the early warning system.
  • Exposure visits/trainings should be arranged to hazard sites for the junior staff of NACA/NGOs as well as communities to understand the issues of climate change

 

 

Recommendations for District Dadu:

Sr. #

Stakeholders

Recommendations

1

Community

  • The Flood Protective (FP) Band / Protective Wall and main city protective band to be strengthened.
  • Communities may be displaced to high altitude areas which are at risk from flashfloods
  • The activities of NACA/NGOs should be enhanced in term of rehabilitation and disaster management
  • Information centers should be established by the Army in the areas regarding flashfloods
  • Protective walls / bands may be constructed around the MancharLake
  • Polluted water should not be drained into MancharLake

 

2

Government

  • Appropriate measures to be taken for reducing water logging
  • Small dams need to be established as part of the flood management strategy. Apart from flood management, the small dams may be used an important source of irrigation water as well as fish production as a means of livelihoods.
  • RBOD passing through district may be properly managed. Instead of draining in the MancharLake, it should be diverted towards a proper route.
  • Alternate sources of livelihoods for the fisher folk communities may be identified as the future of lake is seriously threatened.
  • The hill torrents passing through Nai Gaj and draining into MancharLakemay be properly managed.
  • Displacement may be occurred for those which are at risk from flashfloods
  • Appropriate warning system should be installed having long range capacity

 

3

 

NACA/NGOs

  • Trees plantation may be promoted along the river banks on the basis of war footing
  • Appropriate measures to be taken for water logging and salinity
  • Flood information centers may be organized with enhanced capacity and empowerment for provision of timely and authentic information as part of the early warning system.
  • The migration or shifting points for local communities may be identified and established.
  • Capacity gaps among the stakeholders need to be reduced with appropriate plans for their training with focus on early warning system, community networking and mobilization during flood emergency and awareness raising.
  • At the most critical points of the band, Sipper wall / band may be constructed
  • There is urgent need to build small dams as protective measures.
  • Flood information centers may be organized with enhanced capacity and empowerment for provision of timely and authentic information as part of the early warning system.

 

 

 

Conserving Natural Resource Base and Promoting Human Development through Sharing Knowledge, Exchanging Practices and Co-creating Future